To some, the Vietnam War was a crime — an attempt by the United States to suppress a heroic Vietnamese national liberation movement that had driven French colonialism out of its country. To others, the Vietnam War was a forfeit, a just war needlessly lost by timid policymakers and a biased media. For many who study foreign affairs, the Vietnam War was a tragic mistake brought about by U. Another interpretation, a fourth one, has recently emerged, now that the Vietnam War is history and can be studied dispassionately by scholars with greater, though not unlimited, access to records on all sides.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified the major consequence of the war: In addition, the United States forgave debt owed by the Mexican government to U. Mexico accepted the loss of Texas and thereafter cited the Rio Grande as its national border.
The war did not result in a regime change in Mexico. Samoa[ edit ] The Samoan crisis was a confrontation between the United States, Germany and Great Britain from towith the powers backing rival claimants to the throne of the Samoan Islands during the Samoan Civil War. Kingdom of Hawaii[ edit ] Anti-monarchial elements, mostly Americans, in Hawaiiengineered the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Hawaii was initially reconstituted as an independent republicbut the ultimate goal of the action was the annexation of the islands to the United States, which was finally accomplished in Cuba and Puerto Rico[ edit ] See also: Cuba was occupied by the U.
The land offensive began on July 25 with 1, infantry soldiers. All military actions in Puerto Rico were suspended on August 13, after U. Philippines[ edit ] The Philippine—American War was part of a series of conflicts in the Philippine struggle for independence against United States occupation.
Fighting erupted between US and Filipino revolutionary forces on February 4,and quickly escalated into the Battle of Manila.
China[ edit ] The Boxer Rebellion was a proto- nationalist movement in China between andso called because it was led by fighters who called themselves the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists.
Panama[ edit ] Inthe U. The secession was engineered by a Panamanian faction backed by the Panama Canal Company, a French—US corporation whose aim was the construction of a waterway across the Isthmus of Panama thus connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Inthe U. The US did not transfer the zone back to Panama until On occasion, the Navy provided gunfire support and Army troops were also used. Henry coined the term " Banana republic " in to describe Honduras. Nicaragua[ edit ] The U. On November 17,two Americans were executed by order of Zelaya after the two men confessed to having laid a mine in the San Juan River with the intention of blowing up the Diamante.
Zelaya resigned later that year. Mexico[ edit ] U. The US occupied the city for six months. Haiti[ edit ] The U. US banks had lent money to Haiti and requested U. The Cacos military group were originally armed militias of formerly enslaved persons who rebelled and took control of mountainous areas following the Haitian Revolution in Such groups fought a guerilla war against the US occupation in what were known as the " Caco Wars.
Dominican Republic[ edit ] U. The US Navy installed its personnel in all key positions in government and controlled the Dominican army and police. The invaders launched the North Russia invasion from Arkhangelsk and the Siberia invasion from Vladivostok.
The invading forces included 13, U. South Korea[ edit ] As the Empire of Japan surrendered in Augustunder the leadership of Lyuh Woon-Hyung committees throughout Korea formed to coordinate transition to Korean independence.
The USAMGK staffed the governing administration with Japanese governors and many other Japanese officials who had been part of the brutal Japanese imperial colonial government and with Koreans who had collaborated with it, which made the government unpopular and engendered popular resistance.
Clark to formulate a plan to overthrow South Korean President Syngman Rheefearing that the political crisis which arose from his authoritarian conduct would imperil military objectives.
Operation Everready, as the plan was named, was shelved once Rhee yielded to American pressure and released arrested opposition leaders.The United States provided financial support to France's fight against Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh from the s until direct U.S.
involvement. While Americans were girding to fight the Civil War in , the French were beginning a century-long imperial involvement in Indochina.
In a “third” Vietnam war began—a continuation, actually—between North and South Vietnam but without significant U.S. involvement. It ended with communist victory in April The Vietnam War was the longest in U.S. .
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe () Korean War This was a national conflict in an Asian country aided by Russia in . For nearly a decade, American combat soldiers fought in South Vietnam to help sustain an independent, noncommunist nation in Southeast Asia.
After U.S. troops departed in , the collapse of South Vietnam in prompted a lasting search to explain the United States’ first lost war. The Genius of North Vietnam's War Strategy The most admirable thing about this fall's PBS series on the Vietnam War is the way in which it forces American audiences to confront the genius of North.
The United States provided financial support to France's fight against Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh from the s until direct U.S. involvement. While Americans were girding to fight the Civil War in , the French were beginning a century-long imperial involvement in .