Cognitive effects of early bilingualism

Here are some amazing facts about the benefits of speaking more than one language.

Cognitive effects of early bilingualism

Cognitive advantages of bilingualism - Wikipedia

History[ edit ] Over the course of the past few years, the prevalence of bilinguals in the United States has increased dramatically. While the United States Census Bureau does not directly poll for bilingualism, they do poll for what languages are used in an individual's home, and if it is a language other than English, they then poll for how well that same individual speaks English.

A general opinion was that bilinguals would have smaller vocabularies, stunted cognitive abilities and that children learning two languages from a young age would be spending too much of their energy differentiating and building the two languages to become competent in either one.

Diaz, from Yale University mentions that perspectives like these were in part believed to have been influenced by variables that had impacted or changed how a society functioned. Inthe American Institute for Research published an influential study which discussed bilingualism as it relates to education and what effects there are on a child's performance maintaining with the class.

While historically relevant and necessary, in context of meeting todays modern methodological standards, these studies in particular are argued to be missing necessary pieces of data that create controversy over their credibility. With current research and data suggesting benefits to bilingualism, the soundness of the former studies conclusions are in brought into question.

Another element that contrasted with more modern researching techniques was the lack of a control for socioeconomic status SES and many of them administered verbal-intelligence tests to non-proficient speakers of a second language in that second language.

Second-Language Acquisition— A Process Parallel to Acculturation?

InPeal and Lambert published a study highlighting the importance of controlling for such factors as age, sex, and SESas well as of having a standardized measure for bilingualism when selecting a sample of bilinguals to be studied.

In their study they carefully matched bilingual to monolingual participants, and found that the bilinguals appeared to have significant advantages to that of their monolingual peers outperforming in both verbal and non-verbal tests, more specifically in the non-verbal tests.

In continuation of this study, and studies alike, the literature after this point began to undergo a shift of focus erring more particularly into areas of cognitive development and aptitude such as: Much of the current research on cognitive effects of bilingualism investigate a correlation between bilingualism and alterations in the brain.

A study titled "Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control" amongst various similarly conducted studies released data suggesting that monolinguals and bilinguals were found having varying ability in the executive function part of the brain.

From these tests, bilinguals showed a higher executive control than their monolingual peers.

Cognitive effects of early bilingualism

When matched in age and other background factors e. Best, an author of Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample suggests that executive function is crucial to academic success across age groups.

Inhibitory processes of adults who learned a second language at a young age show better controlled processing than monolingual adults. Possible Connection[ edit ] The modern day approach to researching multilingualism [27] [28] [29] is suggesting that there are cognitive advantages to becoming bilingual.

One of the more frequently tested aspects to language development has been in relation to a possible link between bilingualism and higher executive functioning skills. These findings suggest bilingualism is correlated with better control of attention and facilitates processing and functioning in several cognitive tasks.

There are two types of processing that aid children in language development: In one study, [28] researchers administered a non-linguistic card-sorting task to participants that required flexibility in problem solvinginhibiting irrelevant information, as well as recognizing the constancy of certain variables in the face of changes in the rules.

Bilingual children significantly outperformed their monolingual peers in this task, suggesting early development of inhibitory function that aids solving problems which require the ability to selectively focus attention. In a following study, researchers [29] aimed to determine what gave bilinguals an advantage in solving the card-sorting task and generally an advantage in problem solving situations.

Groups were equivalent in their ability to represent the stimuli reflecting Worrall's findings, described below [31]and both were equally able to inhibit learned motor responses. Bilinguals performed better on the task to measure conceptual inhibition; the ability to inhibit previous associations and create new mental representations of the stimulus according to task changes.

Another study used three language groups: The bilingual children's scores were similar to the other groups despite lower parent socioeconomic and education level and lower verbal scores. When the two groups were adjusted for age, parent income and education, and verbal scores, the bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on conflict tasks that required resolving multiple attention demands.

Cognitive effects of early bilingualism

The lapsed bilinguals tested better than monolinguals but worse than their fluent counterparts. Others find these effects across various sociolinguistic settings such as comparison groups with bilingual children speaking a second regional and second migrant language [34] or bilingual children of low-income immigrant families and monolingual children of low-income non-immigrant families.

Because this task requires suppressing a source of distraction, this kind of control is then applied to other tasks. This assertion was bolstered by a study of unimodal bilinguals bilinguals who communicated with two spoken languages and bimodal bilinguals bilinguals who used one spoken language and sign language.

Because bimodal bilinguals can express themselves in both languages at the same time, they may require less inhibition. This idea was supported by the results of the study; only unimodal bilinguals were found to have an advantage, as measured by the flanker task a cognitive task that measures attentional focus and inhibition.What an interesting subject to raise.

I grew up as a bilingual myself and I have become an EFL teacher or rather a “facilitator”, as I personally believe that this word describes what real teachers are trying to do around the world.

The Cognitive Benefits of Being Bilingual

Cognitive Consequences of Bilingualism. Research has overwhelmingly shown that when a bilingual person uses one language, the other is active at the same time. The Stages Of Cognitive Development - (Asperger Syndrome, ) Asperger syndrome is part of a larger umbrella of disorders known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which are “characterized by three core deficits: impaired communication, impaired reciprocal social interaction and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviors or interests.” (Faras, ).

In the era of globalization, learning a second language during childhood can provide developmental and social benefits. This topic aims to further understanding of the impacts of bilingualism on children’s cognitive development and suggests the most favourable learning contexts.

Customers who bought this item also bought

There is growing recognition of the advantages of raising and educating children bilingually. The benefits of bilingualism, well-documented by extensive research, are linked to children's immediate personal lives but also to schooling, socio-emotional and cognitive development, and globalization.

Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. More than half of all Europeans claim to speak at least one language other than their mother tongue; nevertheless, many of these are monoscriptual.

Second language - Synthesis | Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development