Know the dimensions of the planning-organizing-leading-controlling P-O-L-C framework. Know the general inputs into each P-O-L-C dimension. While drawing from a variety of academic disciplines, and to help managers respond to the challenge of creative problem solving, principles of management have long been categorized into the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the P-O-L-C framework. The four functions, summarized in the P-O-L-C figure, are actually highly integrated when carried out in the day-to-day realities of running an organization.
Share through Email The control function of management can be a critical determinant of organizational success. Most authors discuss control only through feedback and adjustment processes. This article takes a broader perspective on control and discusses the following questions: What is good control?
Why are controls needed? How can good control be achieved? If multiple control strategies are feasible, how should the choice among them be made?
This is the critical control function of management. And since management involves directing the activities of others, a major part of the control function is making sure other people do what should be done.
The management literature is filled with advice on how to achieve better control. This advice usually includes a description of some type of measurement and feedback process: The basic control process, wherever it is found and whatever it is found and whatever it controls, involves three steps: In many circumstances, a control system built around measurement and feedback is not feasible.
And even when feasibility is not a limitation, use of a feedback-oriented control system is often an inferior solution. Yet, good controls can be established and maintained using other techniques. What is needed is a broader perspective on control as a management function: The first part summarizes the general control problem by discussing the underlying reasons for implementing controls and by describing what can realistically be achieved.
In the second part, the various types of controls available are identified. The last part discusses why the appropriate choice of controls is and should be different in different settings.
Why Are Controls Needed? If all personnel always did what was best for the organization, control — and even management — would not be needed.
One important class of problems against which control systems guard may be called personal limitations. People do not always understand what is expected of them nor how they can best perform their jobs, as they may lack some requisite ability, training, or information.
In addition, human beings have a number of innate perceptual and cognitive biases, such as an inability to process new information optimally or to make consistent decisions, and these biases can reduce organizational effectiveness. Even if employees are properly equipped to perform a job well, some choose not to do so, because individual goals and organizational goals may not coincide perfectly.
In other words, there is a lack of goal congruence. Steps must often be taken either to increase goal congruence or to prevent employees from acting in their own interest where goal incongruence exists.
If nothing is done to protect the organization against the possible occurrence of undesirable behavior or the omission of desirable behavior caused by these personal limitations and motivational problems, severe repercussions may result.
At a minimum, inadequate control can result in lower performance or higher risk of poor performance. At the extreme, if performance is not controlled on one or more critical performance dimensions, the outcome could be organizational failure. Perfect control, meaning complete assurance that actual accomplishment will proceed according to plan, is never possible because of the likely occurrence of unforeseen events.
However, good control should mean that an informed person could be reasonably confident that no major unpleasant surprises will occur. First, control is future-oriented: The past is not relevant except as a guide to the future, Second, control is multidimensional, and good control cannot be established over an activity with multiple objectives unless performance on all significant dimensions has been considered.
Thus, for example, control of a production department cannot be considered good unless all the major performance dimensions, including quality, efficiency, and asset management, are well controlled.
Third, the assessment of whether good performance assurance has been achieved is difficult and subjective.
An informed expert might judge that the control system in place is adequate because no major bad surprises are likely, but this judgment is subject to error because adequacy must be measured against a future that can be very difficult to assess.
Fourth, better control is not always economically desirable. Like any other economic good, the control tools are costly and should be implemented only if the expected benefits exceed the costs. The following sections discuss the major control options. Control-Problem Avoidance In most situations, managers can avoid some control problems by allowing no opportunities for improper behavior.
One possibility is automation. Consequently, control is improved.
Another avoidance possibility is centralization, such as that which takes place with very critical decisions at most organization levels.It seems that writers of management literature now prefer use of the term "coordinating" rather than "controlling".
"Coordination" Must Exist or There's No Organization -- Only an "Experience" Regardless of the negative connotation of the word "control", it must exist or there is no organization at all.
Controlling, one of the four major functions of POLCA management, is the process of regulating organizational activities so that actual performance conforms to expected organizational standards and goals. This is the critical control function of management. And since management involves directing the activities of others, a major part of the control function is making sure other people do what should be done.
r-bridal.com We are dedicated to provide articles, detailed project management software reviews, PM book reviews, training and course reviews, and the latest news for the most popular web-based collaboration tools. The management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are widely considered to be the best means of describing the manager’s job, as well as the best way to classify accumulated knowledge about the study of management.
Recently, the concept of quality management has expanded to include organization-wide programs, such as Total Quality Management, ISO, Balanced Scorecard, etc.
Operations management includes the overall activities involved in developing, producing and distributing products and services.