Indirect Effects on the Forest Soil Fire's most significant indirect effects on soil are caused by the alteration of standing vegetation and the consumption of organic matter within and beneath the forest floor DeBano et al.
Introduction The website is a means of rapidly locating information on the economic costs of soil erosion. Soil erosion is a form of soil degradation on agricultural land. It is the relatively rapid removal of topsoil by rain or wind. Under natural conditions - in climates where agriculture can be practiced - the soil is protected by vegetation and the rate of soil loss by erosion is very low.
On cultivated land the soil is exposed to rain and wind during part of the year and can easily be washed or blown away. The rate of erosion can increase to more than a thousandfold compared to forest e.
The dark coloured upper layer of soil, rich in humus termed A1-horizonin temperate climates has favourable properties for plant growth, such as good soil structure and aeration, and timely providing the plant with water and nutrients.
Topsoil removal, therefore, leads to a decline in soil productivity. This is an irreversible process, as topsoil forms very slowly. For tropical soils see: The soil material that is lost through erosion, is deposited elsewhere, in places where it is not wanted like roads, streets, people's houses, drainage ways, rivers, dams and reservoirs.
It can lead to pollution of watercourses and reservoirs with agrochemicals herbicides, pesticides adsorbed on soil particles.
Heavy rains can cause muddy flooding. The effects of soil erosion on farmers' fields are called onsite effects, the effects outside agriculture offsite effects.
The most important onsite effect, the loss of soil productivity, is a long term process seen from the farmers' point of view. The mud that is deposited in built-up areas during heavy rainfall must be cleared away directly after the event, and is therefore a short term effect.
Govers drew attention to the net downslope displacement of soil material on sloping cultivated land as a direct effect of tillage. This he called 'tillage erosion'. Tillage erosion does not cause offsite damage. The soil that is displaced by tillage remains on the tilled field.
Another cause of downslope movement of soil and earth material is 'mass wasting' which takes place under the influence of gravity alone soil creep, frost creep, solifluction, mudflow, slumping, landslides. The rapid forms of mass wasting mudflows, landslides, rockfalls can cause extensive damage with loss of lives.
The processes of mass wasting will not be discussed in this website. For more info go to: Soil erosion by rain occurs when more rain falls than the soil can absorb, either by exceeding the infiltration capacity or the storage capacity of the soil.
The excess water runs downslope as overland flow.After the Fire: Indirect Effects on the Forest Soil Fire's most significant indirect effects on soil are caused by the alteration of standing vegetation and the consumption of organic matter within and beneath the forest floor (DeBano et al.
, Neary et al. ). soil erosion essaysSoil erosion is a gradual process that occurs when the actions of water, wind, and other factors eat away and wear down the land, causing the soil to deteriorate or disappear completely.
Soil deterioration and low quality of water due to erosion and run off has often become a sev. Soil Erosion has been a major issue in the past and will become an even greater issue in the future as population growth continues to expand and land resources are more intensively used, often to a .
F.J.P.M. Kwaad, physical geographer Home Contact Other websites by the author: Images of soil erosion - Ephemeral gully erosion - Soil erosion control in Europe Introduction The website is a means of rapidly locating information on the economic costs of soil erosion.
Research on Soil Erosion. Edited by: Danilo Godone, Silvia Stanchi. ISBN , Published The Living Soil: Texture and Structure. Soils are made up of four components: minerals, air, water, and organic r-bridal.com most soils minerals represent around 45% of the total volume, water and air about25% each, and organic matter from 2% to 5%.