Argumentative essays are where you try and convince your reader to take a specific stance on a topic. This can range from politics, debates, news, and many other topics. A persuasive, argumentative essay will use credible sources to find facts, information, and statistics that help support that specific stance.
The Fine-Tuning Argument, Generalized by Luke Muehlhauser on September 30, in Design Argument Religious believers often claim that the universe is fine-tuned for life, and that this is evidence of God.
As such, it invites a careful examination. This argument takes many forms, but we might generalize it like this: The apparent fine-tuning of the universe for life is explained by naturalistic design, naturalistic non-design, supernatural design, supernatural non-design, or some combination of those factors.
The apparent fine-tuning of the universe for life is not explained by naturalistic design, naturalistic non-design, supernatural non-design, or a combination of factors.
Therefore, the apparent fine-tuning of the universe for life is explained by supernatural design. The argument is deductively valid, so if the premises are true then the conclusion must be true.
Premise 1 is not much debated. The four options given cover all possibilites. But perhaps the fine-tuning of the universe could be explained by a combination of these options, so premise 1 is not certain.
So nearly all the action is on premise 2. If premise 2 is more probably true than not, then it may be fair to say that the apparent fine-tuning of the universe counts as genuine evidence for supernatural design. Most of the debate, however, has focused on two of these possibilities: I may return briefly to the other two possibilities later, but for the most part I would like to set them aside.
I currently believe naturalistic non-design explains the apparent fine-tuning of our universe, and most people who disagree with me defend a supernatural design hypothesis. So those are the two possibilities on which I will focus.
The first [objection] is this: Most of it is completely inhospitable and hostile to life. The fine-tuning argument applies to the universe as a whole. The second objection is: We are adapted to the universe by evolution, not the universe is adapted to us.
Also, remember that admitting that our universe is fine-tuned for life does not immediately priviledge a design hypothesis: The orbits of the planets are not fine-tuned ellipses because of gods, but because of physics. And as Moritz agrees, it appears that primitive biological systems need not have been fine-tuned for replication and evolution by a deity — instead, their properties emerged from chemistry.
Defenders of the fine-tuning argument have put the emphasis in different places. If the universe is fine-tuned for life, it is even more fine-tuned for intelligent life or conscious life.
Where the distinction matters, we shall examine it — including, in the next post of this series. What, exactly, is fine-tuned? A few people — Victor Stenger and Fred Adamsfor example — have questioned the idea that the universe is so finely-tuned as usually claimed. Instead, I will take the vast majority of cosmologists at their word when they say that if the parameters of our universe were much different, life as we know it could not exist.
For example, if the amount of matter in the universe had differed by 1 part inlife could not have existed. If the universe had had too much matter, it would collapsed back on itself in a second. If it had had too little matter, it would have expanded too quickly for planets to form. And if the strength of gravity or the strength of the weak force had differed by as little as one part inspace would have likewise expanded or contracted too quickly for life to have evolved.
The point is this: So it looks to some people like some intelligence beyond our universe has monkeyed with the values so they would come out just right for life to evolve. How this series will proceed I have many objections to the fine-tuning argument — many objections to the claim that fine-tuning provides evidence for God.
How generous of me! The next post will contain my first question to defenders of the fine-tuning argument like Al Moritz.Atheists often lose public debates with theists, especially when going up against heavyweights like William Lane Craig..
I don’t know of an atheist losing a debate to someone who denies evolution. Editor's Note: There has been rising interest in the "problem of evil" in our comment boxes, and many atheist commenters requested a stronger engagement with the so-called "evidential" version of that argument.
So on Wednesday we featured a defense of the "evidential" version from atheist Brian Green Adams. Today, Catholic author Trent Horn offers a critique.
The Purdue Writing Lab Purdue University students, faculty, and staff at our West Lafayette, IN campus may access this area for information on the award-winning Purdue Writing Lab.
This area includes Writing Lab hours, services, and contact information. Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England.
He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award.
Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers.
Follow Up on Usury Post: I wasn't following the comments on my "In Defense of Usury" post, since it was primarily just an excerpt from Karlan and Zinman's argument.I confess that I was surprised to see that there were so many comments and so much controversy about the study described in .
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